After a traumatic brain injury, it sometimes happens that the brain can repair itself, building new brain cells to replace damaged ones. But the repair doesn’t happen quickly enough to allow recovery from degenerative conditions like motor neuron disease (also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease or ALS). Siddharthan Chandran walks through some new techniques using special stem cells that could allow the damaged brain to rebuild faster.
Although the technology has existed for just a few years, scientists increasingly use “disease in a dish” models to study genetic, molecular and cellular defects. But a team of doctors and scientists led by researchers at the Cedars-Sinai Regenerative Medicine Institute…
I’ve had quite a few asks targeting me for the fact that I have a ‘Donate’ button on my blog and would like to take this opportunity to share with you why this is.
All money donated using the said ‘Donate’ button goes to the Motor Neurone Disease Association. This is in fact the only charity in the UK for this disease. Motor Neurone Disease is an incurable, terminal, degenerative disease causing victims to lose the ability to speak, move, write, and eventually, breathe and swallow. Victims experience severe pain along the way and as you may imagine not only can this be incredibly traumatic and beyond frustrating for the victim themselves, but also for their family members and friends. Estimated life expectancy from the time of diagnosis is a maximum of 5 years, this being severely lower for most victims.
The charity is so important to me personally because my Father is in the late stages of the disease and is now almost completely paralysed (locked-in) and I cannot begin to describe how awful it has been to witness his decline.
I am not making this post because I want sympathy, but because I am determined to raise awareness of the disease and the associated charity (MNDA) in the hope that the donations they receive will increase and they will eventually have sufficient funding to successfully research and find a cure for this horrendous disease. At the moment the association is so poor that they do not have enough money to cover the needs of victims in terms of being supplied with hoists to enable them to move in any way such as to bed or the toilet, specialist toilets, cutlery, letter cards or lifts etc. I know from personal experience with my Father that his quality of life has suffered a lot due to this and as a result I am desperate for other current and future victims to experience better final days.
Overall, any donations at all whether it is 20p or £200 would be hugely appreciated and much needed for the charity, victims and their families and friends, but even if you are not able to assist at all financially, if you would simply help raise awareness for this disease and charity (for example by reblogging this post, considering the charity if you are choosing one to fundraise for, or simply telling people about the disease), I would be extremely grateful.
Thank you in advance.
New research from the University of Sheffield could offer solutions into slowing down the progression of motor neurone disease (MND).
Scientists from the University of Sheffield’s Institute for Translational Neuroscience (SITraN) conducted pioneering research assessing how the devastating debilitating disease affects individual patients.
MND is an incurable disease destroying the body’s cells which control movement causing progressive disability. Present treatment options for those with MND only have a modest effect in improving the patient’s quality of life.
Professor Pamela Shaw, Director of SITraN, and her research team worked in collaboration with a fellow world leading MND scientist Dr Caterina Bendotti and her group at the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research in Milan, Italy. Together they investigated why the progression of MND following onset of symptoms varies in speed, even in the presence of a known genetic cause of the condition.
The research, published in the scientific journal Brain, investigated two mouse models of MND caused by an alteration in the SOD1 gene, a known cause of MND in humans. One of the strains had a rapidly progressing disease course and the other a much slower change in the symptoms of MND. The teams from Sheffield and Milan looked at the factors which might explain the differences observed in speed and severity in the progression of the disease. They used a scientific technique known as gene expression profiling to identify factors within motor neurones that control vulnerability or resistance to MND in order to shed light on the factors important for the speed of motor neurone injury in human patients.
The study, funded by the Motor Neurone Disease Association, revealed new evidence, at the point of onset of the disease, before muscle weakness was observed, showing key differences in major molecular pathways and the way the protective systems of the body responded, between the profiles of the rapid progressing and slow progressing mouse models. In the case of the model with rapidly progressing MND the motor neurones showed reduced functioning of the cellular systems for energy production, disposal of waste proteins and neuroprotection. Motor neurones from the model with more slowly progressing MND showed an increase in protective inflammation and immune responses and increased function of the mechanisms that protect motor neurones from damage.
The research provides valuable clues about mechanisms that have the effect of slowing down the progression of disabling symptoms in MND.
Professor Shaw said that the state-of-the-art Functional Genomics laboratory in SITraN had enabled the research team to use a cutting edge technique called gene expression profiling.
“This enables us to ‘get inside’ the motor neurones in health and disease and understand better what is happening to cause motor neurone injury in MND,” she said.
“This project was a wonderful collaboration, supported by the MND Association, between research teams in Sheffield and Milan. We are very excited about the results which have given us some new ideas for treatment strategies which may help to slow disease progression in human MND.”
Dr Caterina Bendotti said: “MND is a clinically heterogenous disease with a high variability in its course which makes assessments of potential therapies difficult. Thanks to the recent evidence in our laboratory of a difference in the speed of symptom progression in two MND models carrying the same gene mutation and the successful collaboration with Professor Pamela Shaw and her team, we have identified some mechanisms that may help to predict the disease duration and eventually to slow it down.
“I strongly believe that the new hypotheses generated by this study and our ongoing collaboration are the prerequisites to be able to fight this disease.”
Brian Dickie from MND Association added: “These new and important findings in mice open up the possibility for new treatment approaches in man. It is heartening to see such a productive collaboration between two of the leading MND research labs in Europe, combining their unique specialist knowledge and technical expertise in the fight against this devastating disease.”
MND affects more than 6,000 sufferers in the UK with the majority of cases being sporadic but approximately five per cent of cases are familial or inherited with an identifiable genetic cause. Sufferers may lose their ability to walk, talk, eat and breathe.
The MODDERN Cures Act would accelerate the search for a treatment for ALS and other diseases by removing the barriers that limit medical innovation and by providing incentives to develop new treatments and diagnostic tools that can improve, prolong and, ultimately, save lives. Specifically the bill will: Encourage research on treatments, which have been set aside in the lab, but hold promise for treating diseases like ALS that have unmet medical needs; remove barriers and provide incentives to develop new diagnostics; and ensure timely and appropriate reimbursement for new tests and treatments so that patients have access to the latest medical technology as soon as possible.
Detailed, up-to-date bill status information on H.R.3091.
Leonard Lance (R-NJ 7th)
Cosponsor Total: 16
(last sponsor added 09/12/2013)
Studies of a therapy designed to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggest that the treatment dramatically slows onset and progression of the deadly disease, one of the most common neuromuscular disorders in the world. The researchers, led by teams from The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital and the Ludwig Institute at the University of California, San Diego, found a survival increase of up to 39 percent in animal models with a one-time treatment, a crucial step toward moving the therapy into human clinical trials.
The therapy reduces expression of a gene called SOD1, which in some cases of familial ALS has a mutation that weakens and kills nerve cells called motor neurons that control muscle movement. While many drug studies involve only one type of animal model, this effort included analysis in two different models treated before and after disease onset. The in-depth study could vault the drug into human clinical trials, said Brian Kaspar, PhD, a principal investigator in the Center for Gene Therapy at Nationwide Children’s and a senior author on the research, which was published online Sept. 6 in Molecular Therapy.
“We designed these rigorous studies using two different models of the disease with the experimenters blinded to the treatment and in two separate laboratories,” said Dr. Kaspar, who collaborated on the study with a team led by Don Cleveland, PhD, at the University of California, San Diego. “We were very pleased with the results, and found that the delivery approach was successful in a larger species, enabling us to initiate a clinical translational plan for this horrible disease.”
There currently is no cure for ALS, also called Lou Gehrig’s disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates there are about 5,000 new cases in the U.S. each year, mostly in people age 50 to 60. Although the exact cause of ALS is unknown, more than 170 mutations in the SOD1 gene have been found in many patients with familial ALS, which accounts for about 2 percent of all cases.
SOD1 provides instructions for making an enzyme called superoxide dismutase, which is found throughout the body and breaks down toxic molecules that can be damaging to cells. When mutated, the SOD1 gene yields a faulty version of the enzyme that is especially harmful to motor neurons. One of the mutations, which is found in about half of all familial ALS patients, is particularly devastating, with death usually coming within 18 months of diagnosis. SOD1 has also been implicated in other types of ALS, called sporadic ALS, which means the therapy could prove beneficial for larger numbers of patients suffering with this disease.
Earlier work by Dr. Kaspar and others found that they could halt production of the mutated enzyme by blocking SOD1 expression, which in turn, they suspected, would slow ALS progression. To test this hypothesis, the researchers would not only need to come up with an approach that would block the gene, but also figure out how to specifically target cells implicated in the disease, which include motor neurons and glial cells. What’s more, the therapy would preferably be administered noninvasively instead of direct delivery via burr holes drilled into the skull.
Dr. Kaspar’s team accomplished the second part of this challenge in 2009, when they discovered that adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) could cross the blood-brain barrier, making it an ideal transport system for delivering genes and RNA interference strategies designed to treat disease.
In this new work, funded by the National Institutes of Health, the researchers blocked human SOD1, using a technology known as short hairpin RNA, or shRNA. These single strands of RNA are designed in the lab to seek out specific sequences found in the human SOD1 gene, latch onto them and block gene expression.
In one of the mouse models used in the study, ALS develops earlier and advances more quickly. In the other, the disease develops later and progresses more slowly. All of the mice received a single injection of AAV9-SOD1-shRNA before or after disease onset.
Results showed that in the rapid-disease-progressing model, mice treated before disease onset saw a 39 percent increase in survival compared to control treated mice. Strikingly, in mice treated at 21 days of age, disease progression was slowed by 66 percent. Perhaps more surprising was the finding that even after symptoms surfaced in these models, treatment still resulted in a 23 percent increase in survival and a 36 percent reduction in disease progression. In the slower-disease-onset model, treatment extended survival by 22 percent and delayed disease progression by 38 percent.
“The extension of survival is fantastic, and the fact that we delayed disease progression in both models when treated at disease onset is what drives our excitement to advance this work to human clinical trials,” said Kevin Foust, PhD, co-first author on the manuscript and an assistant professor in neurosciences at The Ohio State University College of Medicine.
In addition to the potential therapeutic benefit, the study also offers some interesting insights into the biological underpinnings of ALS. The role of motor neurons in ALS has been well documented, but this study also highlighted another key player—astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the human brain and supporters of neuronal function.
“Recent work from our collaborator Dr. Cleveland has demonstrated that astrocytes and other types of glia are as important if not more important in ALS, as they really drive disease progression,” said Dr. Kaspar. “Indeed, in looking at data from mice, more than 50 percent of astrocytes were targeted throughout the spinal cord by this gene-delivery approach.”
Ideally, a therapy would hit motor neurons and astrocytes equally hard. The best way to do that is to deliver the drug directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which would reduce the amount of SOD1 suppression in cells outside the brain and reduce immune system exposure to AAV9—elements that would add weight to an argument for studying the drug in humans.
Injections directly into CSF cannot be done easily in mice, so the team took the study a crucial step further by injecting AAV9-SOD1-shRNA into the CSF of healthy nonhuman primates. The results were just as the team hoped—the amount of gene expression dropped by as much as 90 percent in motor neurons and nearly 70 percent in astrocytes and no side effects were reported, laying the groundwork towards moving to human clinical trials.
“We have a vast amount of work to do to move this toward a clinical trial, but we’re encouraged by the results to date and our team at Nationwide Children’s and our outstanding collaborators are fully committed to making a difference in this disease,” Dr. Kaspar said.
The findings could impact other studies underway in Dr. Kaspar’s lab, including research on Spinal Muscular Atrophy, an often fatal genetic disease in infants and children that can cause profoundly weakened muscles in the arms and legs and respiratory failure.
“This research provides further proof of targeting motor neurons and glial cells throughout the entire spinal cord for treatment of Spinal Muscular Atrophy and other degenerative diseases of the brain and spinal cord, through a less invasive manner than direct injections,” said Dr. Kaspar, who also is an associate professor of pediatrics and neurosciences at The Ohio State University College of Medicine.
Imagine that garbage haulers don’t exist. Slowly, the trash accumulates in our offices, our homes, it clogs the streets and damages our cars, causes illness and renders normal life impossible.
Garbage in the brain, in the form of dead cells, must also be removed before it accumulates, because it can cause both rare and common neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s. Now, University of Michigan researchers are a leap closer to decoding the critical process of how the brain clears dead cells, said Haoxing Xu, associate professor in the U-M Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology.
A new U-M study identified two critical components of this cell clearing process: an essential calcium channel protein, TRPML1, that helps the so-called garbage collecting cells, called microphages or microglia, to clear out the dead cells; and alipid molecule, which helps activate TRPML1 and the process that allows the microphages to remove these dead cells.
Moreover, the Xu lab identified a synthetic chemical compound that can activate TRPML1. Because this chemical compound ultimately helps activate this cell-clearing process, it provides a drug target that could help combat these neurological diseases.
"This is clearly a drug target," Xu said. "What this paper picks out is exactly what is going wrong in this process."
Scientists began by looking at a very rare neurodegenerative disease called Type IV Mucolipidosis, a childhood neurodegenerative disease characterized by multiple disabilities.
Xu’s group found that lack of TRPML1 function, which is the channel through which calcium is released from the lysosome—the cell’s recycling center—into the microphage cells, contributes to these neurodegenerative conditions. If this calcium channel doesn’t work, calcium cannot be released, and dead cells aren’t removed, Xu said. The synthetic chemical compound stimulates the TRPML1 calcium channel to release the calcium into the cell.
Further, dead cells “are bad for live cells,” Xu said. An excess of dead cells leads the macrophage cells to also kill healthy neurons necessary for neurological function, which in turn can lead to these neurodegenerative diseases.
There are many neurodegenerative diseases, some very rare and some more common, such as Parkinson’s and ALS. The common thread among them is the dearth of live and functioning neurons, which prevents the neurological system from carrying out normal functions, Xu said.
Thus, identifying a lipid molecule and also chemical compounds that stimulates proper function of the TRMPL1 function could revolutionize the treatment of these neurodegenerative diseases.
The next step in Xu’s research is to test how these general observations are helpful to the neurological diseases and whether the compound is effective in animal models of neurological diseases.
The paper, “A TRP channel in the lysosome regulates large particle phagocytosis via focal exocytosis,” appeared Aug. 29 online in Developmental Cell.
Hey everybody. If anyone sees this, please take a listen. This is my mums interview with the local radio station. She’s recently been diagnosed with ALS, commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. The Airdrie radio station has been absolutely remarkable with how much they’ve helped us over the last little bit, and it would mean a lot if you all took a listen. Thank you so much